~~Forget these not, for hind-sight may shed lights upon the Future
     So please let us all make an
effort to teach this piece of history well ~~

I.   Introduction

Japanese encroachment of Diaoyutai Island represents an emerging trend of resurgence of Japanese Militarism. No matter what subject you may be teaching, would you please share the knowledge of this international issue, this current affair, this historical chapter, this torment of our countrymen and women, this concern of national importance with your students??

II. A brief century-long historical account of Japanese Invasions to China

Invasion by Japanese of Chinese land went beyond the "Eight Year's Counter Combat" which took place some thirty years ago. This "Eight Year's Counter Combat" was merely a climax of repetitive Japanese invasions for over a century in China. Since 1868, Japan had incorporated invasions of foreign lands as a national policy after their Minju Restoration. According to Tanaka Giichiis' (1864-1929, Japanese Prime Minister) "Proclamation of Japanese strategy to Japanese Emperor" (for achieving hegemony in East Asia) : "The strategy of the late Great Minji Emperor was to conquer Taiwan as a first step; followed by capturing  Korea; and then Manchuria and Mongolia; thereafter China and finally conquer the World".  The following is a brief summary of Japanese invasion in China for the sake of recollecting our memories.

1.     Japanese occupation of Liu Qiu Islands (Ryukyu Islands)

Liu Qiu Islands (today's Okinawa) had always maintained a tributary relationship with China. However Japan invaded Ryukyu Kingdom (around 1930) and subordinated the Ryukyu's king under Japanese (with it being concealed from China's knowing). In 1873, alleging a dispute that Taiwanese Mountain Tribe (aborigines) killed certain Liu-Qiu (non-Japanese) natives drifted to Taiwan by typhoon, Japan demanded settlement to the Qing Dynasty. In 1874, Japan invaded Taiwan and the Qing Dynasty had to pay 500,000 taels [1] as settlement. In 1875, Japanese asserted complete sovereignty over the Kingdom and forced it to terminate all relations between the Kingdom and China [2]. The last Ryukyu king was removed from the islands [3], and Ryukyu-han was henceforth abolished to become Japanese Okinawa ken (county).

2.      Japanese Invasion of Korea

Korea, the second target of Japanese invasion, had also been maintaining a tributary relationship with China for a long time. In 1876, Japan had Korea agreed to sign the "Treaty of Kanghwa" under military threats in order to obtain its "privilege rights" for launching penetration moves in political, military and economic affairs [4].  In 1882, the Treaty of Inch'on was signed under pressure (strengthening Japan's position in Korea by weakening Chinese claims to Korea) where troops were permitted to station in Seoul. By 1885, Japan took excuse out of the Pro-Japanese Coup d'Etat of Kap Sin in 1884 (which ended in 3 days, [5]) to blackmail Qing Court. Li-Ito Convention of Tianjin was inked as a result. It was agreed that both countries had equal rights in sending troops to Korea, turning Korea into a common protectorate state of Japan and China, which further became the underlying cause for the first Sino-Japanese War. Sovereignty over Korea was declared by Japan soon after the Russo-Japanese War in 1910.

3.      Sino-Japanese War of Jia Wu [6]

The Tonghak Movement of 1894 in Korea staged a riot against the government who sought assistance from Qing Dynasty in China. Japan also sent its troops but refused to withdraw them after the rebellion and was promptly suppressed [7].   Furthermore, they ambushed Qing's forces encamping near Yashan[8].  Qing Court therefore declared war against Japan, however, its army was defeated in the Battle of Pyongyang and its navy in the Battle of the Yellow Sea. Qing Court eventually sued for peace and agreed to the Treaty of Maguan (Shimonoseki). As a result, China lost its tributary relation with Korea by recognizing the latter's independence; ceding Liaodong, Taiwan and the Pescadores (Penghu) Islands to Japan; paying an indemnity of 200,000,000 taels of silver [9], opening up Chongqing, Shashi, Suzhou, Hangzhou as mercantile ports; granting Japan the right of manufacturing (free of import/export tariff) and the most privileged status.

The signing of the Treaty of Maguan ignited a fierce race among the foreign powers in gaining footholds in China as well as the ceding or leasing of Chinese territories. Colonization of China was boosted and China was on the verge of being carved and torn.

4.      The Eight-Nation Alliance

Due to the Boxers Rebellion (Yihetuan) , Japan joined forces with the other 7 nations (Britain, America, Germany, France, Russia, Austria and Italy) captured Beijing, climaxing a rampage of killing, destruction and robberies. Qing Court finally yielded and agreed to the Xin Chou Treaty, included in which was the destruction of batteries, cannons from Beijing all the way to Dagu - a complete disarmament of national defense forces. The "Nations" were allowed the right to put a permanent legation guard stationed in strategic locations, placing China and her people at the mercy of foreign forces. Special zoning were in essence equivalence to cessions. The indemnity payment of 450 million taels practically emptied the Qing's treasury. All tariffs were controlled and collected by foreign nations. This harsh Treaty basically weakened China to an non-recoverable state.

5.      Russo-Japanese War

This was nothing but a battle between two robbers inside the victim's premises. Japan got Liaodong Peninsula via the Treaty of Maguan, but was made to return it soon after it had its rejoiced swallowing due to intervention by Russia with the support of Germany and France (redeemed by Qing Court with a consideration of 30 million taels). Russia's subsequent expansion and penetration into Manchuria China and Korea came in direct conflict against Japanese interest for its greedy goal of seizing Manchuria. War eventually broke out in 1904 on Chinese soil east of Liao River in Northeastern China. Chinese lands were trampled, and her people were left in turmoil. Defeated, Russia's mere loss was its interest gained in China which was then "assigned" to Japan. The only party that suffered real loss was ironically - China and nobody else.

6.      Invasion of Eastern Mongolia

In 1911, Japan undermined the occasion that the Republic of China was newly founded by sending delegation to Russia to conspire dividing their spheres of interest in China. It was agreed among these two "hook and crook" that lands south of Changchun and Eastern Inner Mongolia should become under Japanese control, whereas lands north of Changchun and the balance of Mongolia should be Russia's. Each would support the other's claims and actions. When Yuan Shi-kai was confronted by the 2nd Revolutionary movement, he sent Zhang Xun to Nanjing (Nanking) in an attempt to solicit among Japanese merchants in Nanjing. Japan took this opportunity and deployed 6 battle-ships to exert threats to Nanjing and demanded the right for the construction of 5 railways, hinting as a trade-off for Japan's recognition of the newly formed Republic. Eager to get Japan's recognition, Yuan accepted all the terms which formed the basis of the later version known as the Twenty-One Demands.

7.      Twenty-One Demands

World War One provided Japan with a chance to invade and take over German's concession interest in Jiaozhou of Shandong, China. Japan put forth the Twenty-One Demand to Yuan Shi-kai in 1915, pressing for his agreement. Twenty-One Demands was Japan's scheme to succeed German interest in Shandong, realizing their dream of being the only foreign power in Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia, monopolizing China's coal mining and steel resources. Utilizing the area as a base to stretch its power to Yangtze River, Japan could then have complete control over China and turned China into the second Japanese satellite after Korea.

8.      Treaty of Versailles

When World War One ended in Europe and Germany surrendered, peace settlement took place in Paris among the allied. Japan succeeded in secret arrangement with Britain, France and Italy to allow its succession of all German interest in Shandong. Chinese delegates, however, requested for the abandonment of the Twenty-One Demands which Japan forced China entered into, allowing China to recapture all interest previously held by Germany in Shandong. However, Britain and France sided with Japan, and stipulated explicitly in the Treaty that Germany should assign all its interest and rights in Shandong, China to Japan.

Oversea students and Chinese in Europe demanded Chinese delegates to keep their stand and refuse to sign the Treaty. Meanwhile, the May 4 Patriotic Movement erupted by outraged student movement back in China. Chinese delegates, deterred to act against public will, refused to sign and put a temporary check to the Japanese conspiracy (plot).

9.       May 30th Atrocious Incident [10]

In 1925, it happened that Chinese labor in Shanghai was abused and beaten by Japanese mill plant management and there was a strike. One Chinese was shot dead by the owner during the negotiation between labor representative and the management. This brought about outraging protest and demonstration by over 3,000 college students in Shanghai on May 30th. When they approached the British Concession Territory (Jujie, meaning Leased Territory), British police patrol opened fire at the demonstrators and killed at least 11 people, wounding tens of others.

10.    Jinan Massacre (May 3rd Massacre)

Japan was worried by the Revolutionary Army success in bringing unity to China and tried its best to prevent it happening so that their exploitation of China could continue. Alleging to protect Japanese citizens in China, Japan sent its troops to Jinan, Qingdao and along the railway between Jiaozhou and Jinan. The Chinese National Revolution Army succeeded in reclaiming Jinan on May 1st, 1928. However, Japanese army seized Shandong Delegate's Office the Chinese Government, and shot Cai Gong Zi, the Delegate-in-charge, after cutting off his nose and ears. All the staff members of the Office were slaughtered, with the Office robbed and burnt. Casualties totaled over 17,000 people, including Chinese officers and civilians, with over 2,000 injured and more than 5,000 people captured.

11.    9.18 Manchurian Incidence (Mukden Incident of Sept. 18, 1931)

Japan had, for quite a long time, planned viciously in turning China into a solely Japanese colony.  Japan encountered severe domestic political and economical crisis in 1931 which, in turn, motivated Japan to initiate attacks on Manchuria as a solution. On July 2, 1931, the Japanese took an excuse out of the dispute between Chinese and Korean peasants in Wan Boa Shan (Changchun) [11] and gunned down over thirty Chinese peasants and arrested many others. [12] On September 18, the Commander of the Japanese Kwangtung Army [Takashi Sakai??] directed the attack firstly at the North barracks and then the east barracks outside Shenyang (then known as Mukden). Shenyang was captured, followed by the Provinces of Liaoning, Jinin and Heilongjiang (collectively the Manchuria). By 1932, Japanese manipulated to install the last Emperor, Henry Pu-yi to head its puppet state of Manzhouguo in order to legitimize its aggression in Manchuria.

12.    1.28 Incidence (Raid of Shanghai)

With an aim to occupy Manchuria permanently, Japan started to create unrest along Chinese coast to divert attention from Chinese officials and civilians (and the World), Japan staged sudden aggression on Shanghai in the night of January 28th, 1932. Its excuse was the boycott of Japanese products in Shanhai. Japan made attacks on Shanghai and was confronted and resisted by the joined forces of Chinese 19th Route Army and 5th Route Army for one month and 4 days before Shanghai had fallen into Japanese control.

13.    Seize of Shanhaiguan, Hebei and formation of "East Hebei Autonomy Government"

The Japanese army seized Shanhaiguan (one of the important strongholds along the Great Wall), followed by Hebei Province in February, and made its way attacking all the strongholds along the Great Wall. By the middle of May, Beijing and Tianjin were on the verge of facing military war actions. The National Government had no choice but to agree to the Treaty of Tang-Gu to recognize East Hebei as a non-military zone, meaning that China lost its control over 19 counties and 2 autonomous regions in Hebei.

14.    7.7 Lugouqiao (Marco Polo Bridge) Incident

By June, 1937, Japan mobilized its main force in the area of Fengtai, a suburb of Beijing, and deliberately launched a military practice exercise on July 7th which  in fact turned out to be an attack on Wanping County.  China burst into outrage and activated a full scale counter-combat against the Japanese.

15.   8.13 Battle of Shanghai

By August, the Japanese Army made sudden aggression on Shanghai, opening up a second battlefield to mark its overall invasion program of China.

16.    Nanjing Massacre

In December of 1937, Nanjing, the Capital of the National Government was finally seized. After its troops entered the city, the Japanese conducted a massive massacre of over 300,000 Chinese soldiers and civilians, which its cruelty and inhumanity was un-precedented in modern World history.

Ever since the commencement of full scale Sino defensive warfare, till the unconditional surrender by the Japanese in 1945, there were countless battles and combats had taken place on Chinese soil. An estimate statistic on loss of lives indicates 1,319,958 casualties; 1,761,235 injuries and 130,126 missing persons for Chinese military officers and soldiers. Civilian losses are estimated doubled these figures. Total Chinese war casualties over these 8 years should be about 10 million lives. According to a quote from "China's estimate on Losses due to Sino-Japanese War", the total loss for China should be at least 128 times of China's Indemnity (principal of 450,000,000 taels, equivalent to 700,860,000 silver dollar) - astronomical by all standard.

III      Please make an effort to teach this piece of History

The argument that the pro-militarism Japanese had for invasion of China over a century is their "Need for Survival Space". Even after the 7.7 Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Kawai-Tatsuo, Japan's then Chief of the Intelligence Bureau, Foreign Affairs Ministry, told Western reporters, "The denial to transfer the proprietorship of its interest-in-possession by the party with resources to the party without, if not resolved by means of war, then by what else?" His "rectification" is nothing but simply a guiltless admission that war is "the" way to achieve their vicious ambition. Japanese policy toward China was to subordinate China as its own, monopolizing in the ownership and exploitation of all Chinese resources, such that it acquired the necessary capability in becoming the World's greatest power.

Apart from direct military aggressions and threats, Japan manipulated various Chinese war-lords to keep China in a permanent state of segregation so as to gain control and solicit for its interest among the parties. Japan lured Yuan Shi-Kai in signing the Twenty-One Demands by its support for revival to a Monarchy system. After Yuan was ousted, Japan saw itself aiding the Anhui Faction warlords who were in control of the central government and NE Provinces Faction warlords active in southern Manchuria, while it conspired with Yen Xi Shan, warlord in Shanxi, and Zhang Xun, warlord of Xuzhou (Jiangsu area). When Duan Qi Rui was in power, his government was staffed with Military Advisor Aoki ; Political Advisor Ariga , Fiscal Advisor Shibuya. All of these "advisors" were the final decision makers in the government. For instance, the employment terms for Duan's military advisor includes: "All issues with respect to Chinese army administration shall not be implemented without the prior approval of the Advisor"; "Any issue of the army, if not approved by the Advisor, shall be amended in the way as deemed proper to the Advisor".

To summarize, the century-long suffering by the Chinese nation, loss of power and dignity, cession of land and indemnity payment, fragmentation of the county, civil wars and disputes, which further led on to the full scale military invasion, massacre, scattered corpses all over the country, deserted dwellings and ruins...

All of these were related to Japanese militarism in every single sense and in every single way. Shouldn't we all learn this piece of history well?? Can we afford not to teach our next generation so that they can understand??

This article just provides a brief outline of what happened. In fact, we can easily access huge volumes of papers, photos, songs and even artifacts, testimonies to supplement our knowledge and ability to teach it well. Let's all make an effort to review the history and to teach it to more students of ours.
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Notes of the Translator:

Text quoted in red in the translation represents additional material from other sources or explantory notes by the Translator on minor points. The following are web page linkage or notes too long to be put into the main body of the translation:

1.  Chinese weight measurement, equivalent to 1.3 ounce of silver
2.  http://www.niraikanai.wwma.net/pages/base/chap1-4.html
3.  stayed captive in Tokyo since 1879 till his death
4.  Japan and Korea equal states; exchange of Envoys; opening of three ports to Japanese trade and extra-territorial rights for Japanese citizens
5.  http://www.onwar.com/aced/nation/jay/japan/fsinojapanese1894.htm;
     http://www.ox.compsoc.net/~gemini/simons/historyweb/sino-war.html   (Sino-Japanese War)
6.  1894 Jia Wu being the Chinese calendar reckoning of the year
7.  Despite notified, Japan alleged the King's escort by 500 Chinese soldiers to Seoul violated the Treaty.
8.  Chinese transport ships were sunk near Fengdao territory, off-coast of Yashan.
9.  which was over 4 times the total indemnities China paid over the years.
10. http://cyc6.cycnet.com:8090/xuezhu/his_photos/content.jsp?n_id=2710   (Chinese)
11. which was masterminded by Japanese by encouraging Japanese and Koreans to buy land in Manchuria.
      http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch18.htm
12. in June there is the Capt. Nakamura Case whom the Japanese alleged to be murdered by Chinese.