of Diaoyutai Island represents an emerging trend of resurgence of Japanese
Militarism. No matter what subject you may be teaching, would you please
share the knowledge of this international issue, this current affair,
this historical chapter, this torment of our countrymen and women, this
concern of national importance with your students??
II. A brief century-long
historical account of Japanese Invasions to China
Japanese of Chinese land went beyond the "Eight Year's Counter Combat"
which took place some thirty years ago. This "Eight Year's Counter
Combat" was merely a climax of repetitive Japanese invasions for
over a century in China. Since 1868, Japan had incorporated invasions
of foreign lands as a national policy after their Minju Restoration. According
to Tanaka Giichiis' (1864-1929, Japanese Prime Minister)
"Proclamation of Japanese strategy to Japanese Emperor" (for
achieving hegemony in East Asia) : "The strategy of the late Great
Minji Emperor was to conquer Taiwan as a first step; followed by capturing
Korea; and then Manchuria and Mongolia; thereafter China and finally conquer
the World". The following is a brief summary of Japanese invasion
in China for the sake of recollecting our memories.
Japanese occupation of Liu Qiu Islands (Ryukyu Islands)
Liu Qiu Islands
(today's Okinawa) had always maintained a tributary relationship with
China. However Japan invaded Ryukyu Kingdom (around
1930) and subordinated the Ryukyu's king under Japanese (with
it being concealed from China's knowing). In 1873, alleging a
dispute that Taiwanese Mountain Tribe (aborigines) killed certain Liu-Qiu
(non-Japanese) natives drifted to Taiwan by typhoon, Japan demanded
settlement to the Qing Dynasty. In 1874, Japan invaded Taiwan and the
Qing Dynasty had to pay 500,000 taels 
as settlement. In 1875, Japanese asserted complete sovereignty over
the Kingdom and forced it to terminate all relations between the Kingdom
and China . The last Ryukyu king was
removed from the islands , and Ryukyu-han
was henceforth abolished to become Japanese Okinawa ken (county).
Invasion of Korea
second target of Japanese invasion, had also been maintaining a tributary
relationship with China for a long time. In 1876, Japan had Korea agreed
to sign the "Treaty of Kanghwa" under military threats in
order to obtain its "privilege rights" for launching penetration
moves in political, military and economic affairs .
In 1882, the Treaty of Inch'on was signed under pressure (strengthening
Japan's position in Korea by weakening Chinese claims to Korea)
where troops were permitted to station in Seoul. By 1885, Japan took
excuse out of the Pro-Japanese Coup d'Etat of Kap Sin in 1884 (which
ended in 3 days, ) to blackmail
Qing Court. Li-Ito Convention of Tianjin was inked as a result. It was
agreed that both countries had equal rights in sending troops to Korea,
turning Korea into a common protectorate state of Japan and China, which
further became the underlying cause for the first Sino-Japanese War.
Sovereignty over Korea was declared by Japan soon after the Russo-Japanese
War in 1910.
War of Jia Wu 
Movement of 1894 in Korea staged a riot against the government who sought
assistance from Qing Dynasty in China. Japan also sent its troops but
refused to withdraw them after the rebellion and was promptly suppressed
. Furthermore, they ambushed
Qing's forces encamping near Yashan.
Qing Court therefore declared war against Japan, however, its army was
defeated in the Battle of Pyongyang and its navy in the Battle of the
Yellow Sea. Qing Court eventually sued for peace and agreed to the Treaty
of Maguan (Shimonoseki). As a result, China lost its tributary relation
with Korea by recognizing the latter's independence; ceding Liaodong,
Taiwan and the Pescadores (Penghu) Islands to Japan; paying an indemnity
of 200,000,000 taels of silver , opening
up Chongqing, Shashi, Suzhou, Hangzhou as mercantile ports; granting
Japan the right of manufacturing (free of import/export tariff) and
the most privileged status.
of the Treaty of Maguan ignited a fierce race among the foreign powers
in gaining footholds in China as well as the ceding or leasing of Chinese
territories. Colonization of China was boosted and China was on the
verge of being carved and torn.
The Eight-Nation Alliance
Due to the
Boxers Rebellion (Yihetuan) , Japan joined forces with the other 7 nations
(Britain, America, Germany, France, Russia, Austria and Italy) captured
Beijing, climaxing a rampage of killing, destruction and robberies.
Qing Court finally yielded and agreed to the Xin Chou Treaty, included
in which was the destruction of batteries, cannons from Beijing all
the way to Dagu - a complete disarmament of national defense forces.
The "Nations" were allowed the right to put a permanent legation
guard stationed in strategic locations, placing China and her people
at the mercy of foreign forces. Special zoning were in essence equivalence
to cessions. The indemnity payment of 450 million taels practically
emptied the Qing's treasury. All tariffs were controlled and collected
by foreign nations. This harsh Treaty basically weakened China to an
This was nothing
but a battle between two robbers inside the victim's premises. Japan
got Liaodong Peninsula via the Treaty of Maguan, but was made to return
it soon after it had its rejoiced swallowing due to intervention by
Russia with the support of Germany and France (redeemed
by Qing Court with a consideration of 30 million taels). Russia's
subsequent expansion and penetration into Manchuria China and Korea
came in direct conflict against Japanese interest for its greedy goal
of seizing Manchuria. War eventually broke out in 1904 on Chinese soil
east of Liao River in Northeastern China. Chinese lands were trampled,
and her people were left in turmoil. Defeated, Russia's mere loss was
its interest gained in China which was then "assigned" to
Japan. The only party that suffered real loss was ironically - China
and nobody else.
of Eastern Mongolia
In 1911, Japan
undermined the occasion that the Republic of China was newly founded
by sending delegation to Russia to conspire dividing their spheres of
interest in China. It was agreed among these two "hook and crook"
that lands south of Changchun and Eastern Inner Mongolia should become
under Japanese control, whereas lands north of Changchun and the balance
of Mongolia should be Russia's. Each would support the other's claims
and actions. When Yuan Shi-kai was confronted by the 2nd Revolutionary
movement, he sent Zhang Xun to Nanjing (Nanking) in an attempt to solicit
among Japanese merchants in Nanjing. Japan took this opportunity and
deployed 6 battle-ships to exert threats to Nanjing and demanded the
right for the construction of 5 railways, hinting as a trade-off for
Japan's recognition of the newly formed Republic. Eager to get Japan's
recognition, Yuan accepted all the terms which formed the basis of the
later version known as the Twenty-One Demands.
One provided Japan with a chance to invade and take over German's concession
interest in Jiaozhou of Shandong, China. Japan put forth the Twenty-One
Demand to Yuan Shi-kai in 1915, pressing for his agreement. Twenty-One
Demands was Japan's scheme to succeed German interest in Shandong, realizing
their dream of being the only foreign power in Manchuria and Eastern
Inner Mongolia, monopolizing China's coal mining and steel resources.
Utilizing the area as a base to stretch its power to Yangtze River,
Japan could then have complete control over China and turned China into
the second Japanese satellite after Korea.
Treaty of Versailles
War One ended in Europe and Germany surrendered, peace settlement took
place in Paris among the allied. Japan succeeded in secret arrangement
with Britain, France and Italy to allow its succession of all German
interest in Shandong. Chinese delegates, however, requested for the
abandonment of the Twenty-One Demands which Japan forced China entered
into, allowing China to recapture all interest previously held by Germany
in Shandong. However, Britain and France sided with Japan, and stipulated
explicitly in the Treaty that Germany should assign all its interest
and rights in Shandong, China to Japan.
and Chinese in Europe demanded Chinese delegates to keep their stand
and refuse to sign the Treaty. Meanwhile, the May 4 Patriotic Movement
erupted by outraged student movement back in China. Chinese delegates,
deterred to act against public will, refused to sign and put a temporary
check to the Japanese conspiracy (plot).
30th Atrocious Incident 
In 1925, it
happened that Chinese labor in Shanghai was abused and beaten by Japanese
mill plant management and there was a strike. One Chinese was shot dead
by the owner during the negotiation between labor representative and
the management. This brought about outraging protest and demonstration
by over 3,000 college students in Shanghai on May 30th. When they approached
the British Concession Territory (Jujie, meaning
Leased Territory), British police patrol opened fire at the demonstrators
and killed at least 11 people, wounding tens of others.
Massacre (May 3rd Massacre)
worried by the Revolutionary Army success in bringing unity to China
and tried its best to prevent it happening so that their exploitation
of China could continue. Alleging to protect Japanese citizens in China,
Japan sent its troops to Jinan, Qingdao and along the railway between
Jiaozhou and Jinan. The Chinese National Revolution Army succeeded in
reclaiming Jinan on May 1st, 1928. However, Japanese army seized Shandong
Delegate's Office the Chinese Government, and shot Cai Gong Zi, the
Delegate-in-charge, after cutting off his nose and ears. All the staff
members of the Office were slaughtered, with the Office robbed and burnt.
Casualties totaled over 17,000 people, including Chinese officers and
civilians, with over 2,000 injured and more than 5,000 people captured.
11. 9.18 Manchurian
Incidence (Mukden Incident of Sept. 18, 1931)
for quite a long time, planned viciously in turning China into a solely
Japanese colony. Japan encountered severe domestic political and
economical crisis in 1931 which, in turn, motivated Japan to initiate
attacks on Manchuria as a solution. On July 2, 1931, the Japanese took
an excuse out of the dispute between Chinese and Korean peasants in
Wan Boa Shan (Changchun)  and gunned
down over thirty Chinese peasants and arrested many others. 
On September 18, the Commander of the Japanese Kwangtung Army
[Takashi Sakai??] directed the attack firstly at the North barracks
and then the east barracks outside Shenyang (then
known as Mukden). Shenyang was captured, followed by the Provinces
of Liaoning, Jinin and Heilongjiang (collectively
the Manchuria). By 1932, Japanese manipulated to install the
last Emperor, Henry Pu-yi to head its puppet state of Manzhouguo in
order to legitimize its aggression in Manchuria.
12. 1.28 Incidence
(Raid of Shanghai)
With an aim
to occupy Manchuria permanently, Japan started to create unrest along
Chinese coast to divert attention from Chinese officials and civilians
(and the World), Japan staged sudden aggression
on Shanghai in the night of January 28th, 1932. Its excuse was the boycott
of Japanese products in Shanhai. Japan made attacks on Shanghai and
was confronted and resisted by the joined forces of Chinese 19th Route
Army and 5th Route Army for one month and 4 days before Shanghai had
fallen into Japanese control.
of Shanhaiguan, Hebei and formation of "East Hebei Autonomy Government"
army seized Shanhaiguan (one of the important
strongholds along the Great Wall), followed by Hebei Province
in February, and made its way attacking all the strongholds along the
Great Wall. By the middle of May, Beijing and Tianjin were on the verge
of facing military war actions. The National Government had no choice
but to agree to the Treaty of Tang-Gu to recognize East Hebei as a non-military
zone, meaning that China lost its control over 19 counties and 2 autonomous
regions in Hebei.
14. 7.7 Lugouqiao
(Marco Polo Bridge) Incident
By June, 1937, Japan mobilized its main force in the area of Fengtai,
a suburb of Beijing, and deliberately launched a military practice exercise
on July 7th which in fact turned out to be an attack on Wanping
County. China burst into outrage and activated a full scale counter-combat
against the Japanese.
15. 8.13 Battle
By August, the Japanese Army made sudden aggression on Shanghai, opening
up a second battlefield to mark its overall invasion program of China.
of 1937, Nanjing, the Capital of the National Government was finally
seized. After its troops entered the city, the Japanese conducted a
massive massacre of over 300,000 Chinese soldiers and civilians, which
its cruelty and inhumanity was un-precedented in modern World history.
Ever since the
commencement of full scale Sino defensive warfare, till the unconditional
surrender by the Japanese in 1945, there were countless battles and combats
had taken place on Chinese soil. An estimate statistic on loss of lives
indicates 1,319,958 casualties; 1,761,235 injuries and 130,126 missing
persons for Chinese military officers and soldiers. Civilian losses are
estimated doubled these figures. Total Chinese war casualties over these
8 years should be about 10 million lives. According to a quote from "China's
estimate on Losses due to Sino-Japanese War", the total loss for
China should be at least 128 times of China's Indemnity (principal of
450,000,000 taels, equivalent to 700,860,000 silver dollar) - astronomical
by all standard.
Please make an effort to teach this piece of History
that the pro-militarism Japanese had for invasion of China over a century
is their "Need for Survival Space". Even after the 7.7 Marco
Polo Bridge Incident, Kawai-Tatsuo, Japan's then Chief of the Intelligence
Bureau, Foreign Affairs Ministry, told Western reporters, "The denial
to transfer the proprietorship of its interest-in-possession by the party
with resources to the party without, if not resolved by means of war,
then by what else?" His "rectification" is nothing but
simply a guiltless admission that war is "the" way to achieve
their vicious ambition. Japanese policy toward China was to subordinate
China as its own, monopolizing in the ownership and exploitation of all
Chinese resources, such that it acquired the necessary capability in becoming
the World's greatest power.
Apart from direct
military aggressions and threats, Japan manipulated various Chinese war-lords
to keep China in a permanent state of segregation so as to gain control
and solicit for its interest among the parties. Japan lured Yuan Shi-Kai
in signing the Twenty-One Demands by its support for revival to a Monarchy
system. After Yuan was ousted, Japan saw itself aiding the Anhui Faction
warlords who were in control of the central government and NE Provinces
Faction warlords active in southern Manchuria, while it conspired with
Yen Xi Shan, warlord in Shanxi, and Zhang Xun, warlord of Xuzhou (Jiangsu
area). When Duan Qi Rui was in power, his government was staffed
with Military Advisor Aoki ; Political Advisor Ariga , Fiscal Advisor
Shibuya. All of these "advisors" were the final decision makers
in the government. For instance, the employment terms for Duan's military
advisor includes: "All issues with respect to Chinese army administration
shall not be implemented without the prior approval of the Advisor";
"Any issue of the army, if not approved by the Advisor, shall
be amended in the way as deemed proper to the Advisor".
To summarize, the century-long suffering
by the Chinese nation, loss of power and dignity, cession of land and
indemnity payment, fragmentation of the county, civil wars and disputes,
which further led on to the full scale military invasion, massacre, scattered
corpses all over the country, deserted dwellings and ruins...
All of these
were related to Japanese militarism in every single sense and in every
single way. Shouldn't we all learn this piece of history well?? Can we
afford not to teach our next generation so that they can understand??
just provides a brief outline of what happened. In fact, we can easily
access huge volumes of papers, photos, songs and even artifacts, testimonies
to supplement our knowledge and ability to teach it well. Let's all make
an effort to review the history and to teach it to more students of ours.