真普選聯盟學者團 立法會普選方案建議
Scholars Group Proposals for Universal Suffrage for Legislative Council Elections

2013.10.03

(English)

前提

  1. 根據真普聯的原則建議,立法會全面普選制度,應以一人兩票的混合制為主體。但由於不希望制度過於複雜,故此各方案中均不希望選民要投多過兩票。
  2. 引入單議席單票制將有助大黨獲得較多議席,避免議會過於分裂。
  3. 顧慮及香港現行地理面積及人口,單議席選區不宜劃得過小,令選出的議員太地區化,單議席制所佔議席建議不超過50席。

方案A

  • 全面普選立法會總議席為90席。
  • 單議席單票制佔40席,以約400萬選民推算,每選區平均約10萬選民。
  • 全港不分區比例代表制選岀50席,沿用現行分區直選之最大餘額法及黑爾商數法,以及不設當選票數比例門檻,換言之任何名單得票達2%(以50%投票率推算,約為40,000票左右),均可獲得一席。

分析與評論

  • 此方案由於單議席比例較低,而比例代表制的安排沒有任何門檻,得票低至2%亦能當選,故此是對小黨比較有利的制度(相較於方案B)。

方案B

  • 全面普選立法會總議席為90席。
  • 單議席單票制佔50席,以約400萬選民推算,每選區平均約8萬選民。
  • 分區比例代表制選岀40席,將全港重新劃分為大約6-7個選區,平均每區6-7席,改用抗特法(D’Hondt formula)

分析與評論

  • 此方案由於單議席制比例較高,而比例代表制部份用分區制,以及將選區議席減少及用抗特法,得票比例少於5%之政黨應難以得到代表,因而對立法會內的政黨組成有壓縮作用,不會出現太分裂的情況。
  • 比例代表制使用抗特法應會令政黨不再分拆名單,對政黨有鞏固作用,正常而言有利大黨獲得稍多議席。

可能過渡方案

  • 方案A 之2016過渡方案

    • 立法會議席增至80席
    • 普選佔60席,包括35席分區比例代表制選出(沿用2012年方法及劃區)
    • 新增全港不分區比例代表制25席,用最大餘額法和黑爾商數法,不設當選門檻。選民分別在分區比例代表制及不分區比例代表制各擁有一票。
    • 功能界別減至20席。傳統之30席功能界別,現時大致可以分為專業界別9席[註1]、工商界及各經濟產業15席[註2]、以及社會及政治界別6席[註3]。建議按此三大類將各功能界別合併,每大類按比例獲分配原來2/3的議席數目:即「專業」大類界別將佔6席、「工商界及各經濟產業」大類將佔10席、及「社會及政治」大類界別將佔4席。各大界別選民每人或每法團只能投一票,最多票之N名候選人當選。
    • 不再設「超級區議會」議席。
    • 取消分組點票
  • 方案B 之2016過渡方案

    • 立法會議席增至80席
    • 普選佔60席,包括35席分區比例代表制選出(沿用2012年方法及劃區)
    • 新增25席單議席單票制,將全港分為25區,每區平均應約15萬選民。
    • 功能界別減至20席。傳統之30席功能界別,現時大致可以分為專業界別9席、工商界及各經濟產業15席、以及社會政治界別6 席。建議按此三大類將各功能界別合併,並按比例令每大類只獲分配原來2/3 的議席:即專業界別將佔6席、工商界及各經濟產業將佔10席、及社會政治界別將佔4席。各大界別選民每人或每法團只能投一票,最多票之N名候選人當選。
    • 不再設「超級區議會」議席。
    • 取消分組點票

分析與評論

  • 2016年的過渡方案,希望製造「不能逆轉」的改革動力,因此必須將傳統功能界別議席的絕對數目及比例均減少。將傳統的界別議席數目砍走三份一,並且合併不同界別,用意是令界別利益比前模糊,令下一階段各界別代表捍衛個別界別利益/席位的動力減退,有助在下一階段走向普選。各原來界別的利益代表,仍然有機會在2016年選舉中爭取議席,因此可能部份的反對聲音不會太大。
  • 考慮過在合併功能界別的情況下,一些選民數目較多的界別會否有明顯優勢,而令原來選民少的界別沒有人獲得代表。例如會否在「專業」的大界別中,教育界會佔很大優勢,而人數較少的如法律界會吃虧。初步估計是可能不會,因為選民不一定只會投給來自自己界別的候選人,例如有聲望高的律師或醫生參選,應亦可吸引相當的教師或衛生服務界選民投票支持。
  • 方案A的過渡方案,由於比例代表制在2016年一屆佔議會四份三,加上增設全港比例代表制會令更多小黨代表入圍,該屆議會可能更加分裂。
  • 方案B的過渡方案,在2016年加進25席單議席作過渡安排,但至2020年全部單議席選區要重劃(可能大致一分為二),並不理想,亦可能影響議員的問責性(即分區直選議員的2016年選區與2020年並不相同)。

[註1] 現包括醫學、教育、會計、社會福利、衛生服務、工程、建築測量及都市規劃、法律、資訊科技。
[註2] 現包括工業界(2)、商界(2席)、批發及零售、進出口、地產及建築、金融、金融服務、飲食、紡織及製衣、航運交通、漁農、保險、旅遊。
[註3] 包括勞工界(3)、區議會、鄉議局、「體育、演藝、文化及出版」界。

相關連結 :


Scholars Group Proposals for Universal Suffrage for Legislative Council Elections

Proposal A

  • Total number of seats in Legislative Council is 90.
  • 40 seats will be elected under first-past-the-post (FPTP) system. With approximately 4 million registered voters, there would be about 100,000 voters in each constituency.
  • 50 seats will be elected by “proportional representation”, with the whole Hong Kong as one constituency. We may maintain current “largest remainder method” and “Hare quota”. There is no election threshold in our proposal, any list that obtains more than 2% of votes (assuming voter turnout rate is about 50%, that is about 40,000 votes) can secure one seat.
  • Compare to proposal B, this proposal has fewer seats elected under FPTP, and has no election threshold, it would be relatively beneficial to small parties.

Proposal B

  • Number of seats in Legislative Council is 90.
  • 50 seats will be elected under FPTP. With about 4 million registered voters, we estimate it will be about 80,000 voters in each constituency.
  • 40 seats will be elected under “proportional representation”. Hong Kong will be divided into 6 to 7 constituencies, each constituency will return 6 to 7 seats, and D’ Hondt formula will be adopted.
  • Compare to proposal A, this proposal has more seats elected under FPTP. The estimation is that parties with vote share lower than 5% may not get elected. The adoption of the D’ Hondt formula will reduce the fragmentation of the Legco.

Possible Transition Proposals

Transition Proposal for Proposal A for 2016 Legislative Council Election

  • Number of seats in Legislative Council increases to 80.
  • 60 seats elected by universal suffrage, including 35 seats by proportional representation with the current division of constituency.
  • 25 seats will be elected under proportional representation with the whole Hong Kong as a constituency. There is no election threshold, and the “largest remainder method” and “Hare quota” are adopted. Each voter would then have two votes in two tiers of proportional representation.
  • Functional Constituency is reduced to 20 seats. In the 30 current traditional FC seats, there are 9 seats for professional sectors; 15 seats for commercial and economic sectors; and 6 seats for social and political sectors. We suggest combine those seats into three large constituencies along the lines above, with each constituency returning two-thirds of its original number of seats. That is, the professional sectors will return 6 seats; 10 seats for commercial and economic sectors; 4 seats for social and political sectors. In each constituency, each elector can cast only one vote. The candidates that get the most votes win.
  • The District Council (II) FC seats will be cancelled.
  • Split Voting in the Legco will be abolished.

Transition Proposal for Proposal B for 2016 Legislative Council Election

  • Number of seats in Legislative Council is 80.
  • 60 seats will be elected by universal suffrage, including 35 seats by proportional representation with current division of constituencies.
  • 25 seats will be elected by FPTP. Hong Kong is divided into 25 constituencies, with about 150,000 voters in each constituency.
  • Functional Constituency is reduced to 20 seats. In the 30 current traditional FC seats, there are 9 seats for professional sectors; 15 seats for commercial and economic sectors; and 6 seats for social and political sectors. We suggest combine those seats into three large constituencies along the lines above, with each constituency returning two-thirds of its original number of seats. That is, the professional sectors will return 6 seats; 10 seats for commercial and economic sectors; 4 seats for social and political sectors. In each constituency, each elector can cast only one vote. The candidates that get the most votes win.
  • The District Council (II) FC seats will be cancelled.
  • Split Voting in the Legco will be abolished.

相關連結 See also: